What is Broccoli.js?

Broccoli is a JavaScript build tool. A build tool is a piece of software that is responsible for assembling your applications assets (JavaScript, CSS, images, etc) into some distributable form, usually to run in a browser. All configuration is done in JavaScript (no confusing/messy config files) via a modular plugin architecture.

What is a build tool?

A build tool’s job is to take input files (your JavaScript, CSS, HTML, etc), to process them and output the result of those transformations, usually into some distributable form. Typically this will involve things like JavaScript transformations to allow you to write newer syntax that will work in a browser, to use a CSS pre-processor like Sass for your CSS, etc.

Broccoli.js is different from other build tools. You may be used to tools like Grunt (a task runner), Gulp (streams and pipes) or Webpack (a module bundler), these all aim to solve different problems than what Broccoli was built for.

Broccoli provides a modular plugin API to leverage other Node tools. Tools like Babel, Rollup, Node-Sass, Webpack, Browserify, and many more can easily be used with Broccoli. These tools perform the actual work by transforming files, Broccoli merely connects inputs to outputs.

Thinking in Broccoli

There are 3 main concepts to get your head around when using Broccoli:


Using the above tools in a standalone fashion is relatively straight forward, they read input files, and write to output files. The difficulty comes when connecting different tools together as you need to manage all the interim state yourself. The only common interface between them is the file system.

Say we want to concatenate our JavaScript files, minify them, and copy the results to our build directory:

import fs from 'fs';
import path from 'path';
import minify from 'minify';
import readDir from './readDir';
import readFiles from './readFiles';

function concatFiles(sourceDir, outputFile) {
    const output = readDir(sourceFiles).reduce((output, file) => output += `;${file.content}`, '');
    fs.writeFileSync(outputFile, output)

function minifyFiles(sourceFiles, outputDir) {
    return readFiles(sourceFiles).map(file => {
        const minified = minify(file.path);
        const outputFile = `${outputDir}/${file.name}.min.${file.extension}`;
        fs.writeFileSync(outputFile, minified)
        return outputFile;

function copyFiles(sourceFiles, outputDir) {
    sourceFiles.forEach(filePath => {
        const file = path.basename(filePath);

const concatted = concatFiles('app', '/tmp/concat-files')
const minified = minifyFiles(concatted, '/tmp/minified-files')
copyFiles(minified, './build');

The above is all well and good, but notice how we have to handle the state between each operation. Now imagine how this scales as our build pipeline grows, adding in Sass compilation, JavaScript transpilation (Babel), fingerprinting, etc. That’s lots of temp directories and file state that you have to handle.

Broccoli works by managing a set of directories, connected together by plugins, which describe how files are moved or transformed at each step of the build process. Broccoli ensures plugins are called in the prescribed order, and writes the result to a target directory. Each plugin is responsible for processing files passed to it in input directories, and writing files to its output directory. This allows you to focus on the transformations and not how files are passed between each plugin.

For example:

app                                                       [target]
 ├─ src                                                    │
 │   ├─ index.js   --> ConcatPlugin() ┐                    │
 │   └─ other.js                      ├─ MergePlugin() --> ├─ prod.js
 └─ styles                            │                    └─ site.css
     ├─ site.scss  --> SassPlugin() ──┘
     └─ layout.scss

Broccoli itself doesn’t really care about files, it simply takes source directories and passes them as inputs to plugins, creates an output directory for the plugin to write to, and passes that output directory as an input to the next plugin.

Broccoli is configured with a file in the root of your project called Brocfile.js. This file defines the build pipeline for your application, and is written in plain old JavaScript. The order in which operations happen is determined by this build file. All that is required is that export default returns a function that returns a plugin/string.

You can think of broccoli-plugins much like a simple programming language, where the output of a function can be passed as the input(s) to another function.


export default options => {
    let js = babel('src');
    js = uglify(js);

    let css = sass('src/styles', 'site.scss');
    css = autoprefixer(css);

    return merge([js, css]);

This could also be expressed as:

export default options => {
     return merge([
            sass('src/styles', 'site.scss')

In the above, a src directory is passed to the babel() plugin (which will convert our new ES6 syntax into ES5 that runs in the browser), the output of that is passed to the uglify() plugin which will minify our JS into a smaller format. The output of uglify() will in turn be passed as 1 input to merge().

Additionally, a src/styles directory and the input file site.scss is passed to sass() which will convert your .scss files into .css files, its output (your css) is passed as an input to autoprefixer() which will add vendor prefixes (like -ms or -webkit) to attributes, which is then in turn passed into the merge() plugin.

The merge() plugin will copy the contents of each of its inputs into its output directory. Thus, it merges our uglified JavaScript and out vendor prefixed css. This then becomes our final output and is what is written to our target (destination) directory.

Finally, the export default () => line exports a function that Broccoli will invoke with an options object, that contains an env property to indicate the environment. This is set from the --environment CLI argument and defaults to development.

This should all be fairly familiar to you if you’ve ever written JavaScript (or any programming language for that matter) before; it’s just inputs and output.

Note: ES Modules syntax is supported by Broccoli since version 2.1.0. Prior to this, standard CommonJs syntax with require and module.exports should be used.


Plugins are what a build pipeline developer will interact with most. Plugins are what do the actual work of transforming files at each step of the build process. The API of a plugin is pretty simple, all that’s required is creating a class that extends the broccoli-plugin base class, and implementing a build() method, that performs some work or returns a promise.

import Plugin from 'broccoli-plugin';

class MyPlugin extends Plugin
  build() {
    // A plugin can receive single or multiple inputs nodes/directories
    // The files are available in this.inputPaths[0]/this.inputPaths[1]...
    // You can do anything with these files that you can do in Node
    // The output of your plugin must write to this.outputPath

A broccoli-plugin has only one purpose, to transform the files from its this.inputPaths directories to its this.outputPath directory when its build() function is invoked. Anything you can do in Node, you can do in the build() method. A plugin can receive one or multiple inputs, and these are available in the this.inputPaths array in the order they are provided.

this.inputPaths contains paths to directories, that are the outputPath of previous plugins. Each inputPath contains files that you can manipulate and write to this.outputPath. Broccoli will handle the state of these directories and take responsibility for passing them between plugins.

There is a special case where a string is passed as an input to a plugin. When parsing your build pipeline, Broccoli will automatically convert a string input into a source plugin. This plugin basically connects its input directory to its output directory, and also allows Broccoli to watch and be notified when files within the input directory change and trigger a rebuild. You can also manually create an unwatched directory from a string by using UnwatchedDir, changes in this directory will not trigger a rebuild.


The build pipeline is a series of connected plugins, from one or more input directories to a single target directory. Working from the target directory (the final output) back up to the source directories resembles a tree. Think of a piece of Broccoli and you should have a mental model of what a build pipeline looks like.

broccoli tree

Broccoli parses the result of the export default from the Brocfile.js, and traverses up all of the connected nodes all the way to the source directories to produce this tree.

As Broccoli does this, it sets up the filesystem state for each plugin, creating an outputPath for each to write to. Broccoli normalizes each plugin into what it calls nodes, that contain information about the inputs and output of each item in the build pipeline.

You may often encounter the term “tree” when reading plugin READMEs or in tutorials, just remember a tree is a connected set of plugins.


When Broccoli starts up, the build file Brocfile.js file in the root of the project is parsed, from last (target) plugin/node up to the source directories. As it does so, Broccoli handles wiring up all of the nodes’ inputs and outputs into a graph (from the end node up to the start nodes), creating temporary output directories for each as it goes, linking inputs to outputs.

This graph of nodes is held in memory, and reused whenever a rebuild is triggered. When a build or rebuild is triggered, Broccoli will invoke the build() method on each plugin in the order they’re defined in the Brocfile.js, building one plugin at a time, and finally write the files from the final node into the destination build directory.

Here’s an example:

import mergeTrees from "broccoli-merge-trees"; // broccoli merge-trees plugin
export default () => mergeTrees(["dir1", "dir2"]);

This is a very simple Brocfile.js that merely merges the contents of dir1 and dir2 into the output directory. The node graph would be represented as follows:

source plugin
               =====> merge plugin
source plugin
/dir1 => source node 1
/dir2 => source node 2
    'dir1', => source node, implicitly created when using a string as an input
    'dir2' => source node, implicitly created when using a string as an input
export default () => broccoli-merge-trees node with source nodes dir1 and dir2 as inputs

The two input nodes reference two source directories, dir1 and dir2. Thus export default contains a node that references the two input nodes, and an output path that will contain the contents of dir1 and dir2 when the build command is run.


One last thing. Broccoli comes with a built in development server that provides an HTTP server to host your assets in development, and perform rebuilds when source directories (nodes) change.

The local HTTP server runs on http://localhost:4200

Ok, that pretty much wraps up the basics, let’s continue on and learn how to setup a Broccoli build pipeline in the Getting Started guide.